Aircraft Design And Construction
  • Fuselage-
  • Empenage- Is the aft part of the aircraft containing the horizontal stabilizers and elavators, as well as the vertical stabilizer and rudder.
  • Formers and Stringers- Formers provide ontoured cross sectional shape to a structure while the stringers run the length between them.
  • Truss Structure - uses struts and wire bracing
    • Truss Type Wing
      • Spars- The main load carrying members of a wing truss
        • Laminated Spars- Constructed of strips of wood that are glued together with the grain running in a parallel direction.
          • Just as strong as a solid spar as long as its constructed to aviation standards.
        • Solid Spars- Mainly manufactured of wood and using sitka spruce though modern aircraft us extruded aluminum
        • Compression Struts- Separate the spars and are made of either steel tubing or heavy-wall aluminum alloy tubing.
        • Compression Ribs- Are sometimes used and have been specially strengthened to take compressive loads.
      • Drag Wires
      • Anti-Drag Wires
      • Cap Strips
      • Gussets
      • Nose Ribs/False Ribs
  • Stressed Skin
    • Monocoque- allows the aircraft to be built with a more streamlined shape and provides further reductions in weight because the skin itself carries the structural loads.
      • They can fail if subjected to relatively minor dents or creases (pop cans)
    • Semi-Monocoque- The skin is fastened to a sub-structure or skeletal framework, which allows the loads to be distributed between the structural components and the skin of the aircraft.
    • Stressed Skin Wing
  • Airfoils
    • Symmetrical Foil - Is a foil that is the same construction on the top as it is on the bottom. A teardrop shape.
    • A Symmetrical Foil - Is a foil with a dissimilar top and bottom section and is the standard foil used in general aviation.
    • Physics
      • Downwash- Is the air thats forced down by the shape of an airfoil and must be sufficient to support the weight of the aircraft to gain lift.
      • Angle of Attack- Is the relation of the airfoil to that of the relative wind.
      • If the airspeed of an aircraft doubles the lift quadrooples
    • Transmitting Lift - The airfoil being attached to the fuselage, transfers it's lifting capability to the rest of the structure.
      • Center of Lift- The point at which the air pressures produced by the wing can be considered concentrated.
        • Wings are mounted in such a way to move the center of lift just after of the center of gravity.
      • Torsional Loads- As the aircraft manuevars and the angle of attack changes the wing is subject to torsional loads (twisting).
      • Bending Loads- The wing is subjected to bending loads because the weight is concentrated at the fuselage and the lift is produced along the full length of the wing.
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