Right Answers to Ground Handling.
Table of Contents

13B

13B-1
The Answer is A
A hung start is one in which the engine starts but does not accelerate to normal starting RPM. If a hung start occurs, the engine should be shut down. Return

13B-2
The Answer is B
Hung starts are often the result of insufficient power to the starter, or the starter cutting off before the engine starts self-accelerating. To help prevent a hung start, many operators insist on ground power assistance when starting. Return

13B-3
The Answer is C
Ground handling should be done according to the aircraft manufacturer's instructions. When towing an aircraft with a steerable nosewheel, you should verify that the locking scissors are set to full swivel. Tailwheel aircraft are usually towed forward, but in some cases may be towed backward. While discharging hydraulic pressure may help prevent accidental operation of the nosewheel steering, it also makes the brake system inoperative. Return

13B-4
The Answer is C
When tieing down an aircraft, nylon or Dacron rope is preferred because it won't shrink, mildew or rot. Return

13B-5
The Answer is C
Whether at idle or at full thrust, the hazard area in front of a jet engine extends out 25 feet. In the rear the hazard are may extend from 100 to 200 feet, depending on the power setting. Return

13B-6
The Answer is C
Carbon dioxide is the most satisfactory extinguishing agent for carburetor or intake fires. CO2 is preferred because it leaves no residue. Return

13B-7
The Answer is A
Oil seeping past the piston rings or incomplete scavenging of oil in the cylinders of a radial engine may result in an accumulation of oil in the lower cylinders. Before starting a radial engine that has been shut down for more than 30 minutes, you should check for hydraulic lock by turning the propeller three or four complete revolutions. If liquid is present in the cylinders it is indicated by a resistance to turn, or by thr prop stopping abruptly. All liquid must be cleared from the cylinders before attempting to start the engine. Return

13B-8
The Answer is C
To prime most fuel injection systems installed on horizontally opposed engines, you place the mixture control in the full-rich position. If the fuel control lever is placed in the idle-cutoff position no fuel can flow to the engine and there is no such thing as an auto-rich position on a piston engine. Return

13B-9
The Answer is A
Light-off of a turbing engine is indicated by an increase in exhaust gas temperature (EGT), turbine inlet temperature (TIT), and interstage turbine temperature (ITT). These temperatures should be monitored closely during start to prevent engine damage. In a piston engine, oil pressure is the most important condition to monitor. Return

13B-10
The Answer is A
The best way to clear a flooded engine is to crank the engine with the mixture in the cutoff position, ignition turned off, and the throttle fully open. This purges excess fuel from the cylinders. Return

13B-11
The Answer is B
Induction fires during starting are surprisingly common and yo ushould be ready to deal with them at anytime. If a fire occurs during the start, you should continue cranking and attempt to start the engine. This draws the fire into the engine. If the engine does not start and the fire continues, discontinue the start attempt. A carbon dioxide fire extinguisher may then be discharged into the engines intake. Return

13B-12
The Answer is C
A headwind will aid in engine cooling during ground operations. Return

13B-13
The Answer is B
An idling turbojet engine creates high velocity gasses that extend 100 feet aft of the engine. At takeoff power, the hazard area extends back 200 feet. Return

13B-14
The Answer is C
A hot start is characterized by excessive turbine inlet or exhaust gas temperature. This condition is the result of an excessively RICH air/fuel mixture. Return

13B-15
The Answer is C
When towing an aircraft, a qualified person should be in the cockpit to operate the aircraft's brakes, because the brakes on most two vehicles are insufficient to stop the momentum of a large aircraft. Return

13B-16
The Answer is A
In a quartering tailwind, the elevators and the upwind aileron should be down. Return

13B-17
The Answer is B
A tailwheel aircraft has a greater surface area behind the main landing gear (pivot point) than a nosewheel-type aircraft. Because of this, a tailwheel aircraft has a greater tendency to weathervane. Return

13B-18
The Answer is B
A flashing red light from the control tower indicates that you should taxi clear of the runway/taxiway immediately. A steady red light means that you should stop and a flashing white light means you should return to your starting point. Return

13B-19
The Answer is A
When approaching a helicopter, you should be aware of the propellers, rotors, and jet engine intakes and exhausts. one way to help ensure you remain clear of the tail rotor on a helicopter is to approach and leave the helicopter in the pilot's field of vision. Return

13B-20
The Answer is C
A flashing white light from the control tower is a signal for you to return to the place you started from. An alternating red and green light indicates you should proceed with extreme caution, whereas, a flashing red light indicates you should move clear of the the runway or taxiway you are on. Return

13B-21
The Answer is B
Alternating red and greed flashed from the tower indicated that it's O.K. to proceed but use extreme caution. A flashing red light indicates you should move clear of the runway or taxiway immediately, and a flashing white light indicates you should return to where you started. Return

13B-22
The Answer is C
When stopping a nose-wheel type aircraft, the nose-wheel should be left in the straight ahead position so the aircraft cannot move from side-to-side in the wind. Return

13B-23
The Answer is A
After the engine is started and immediately after the aircraft begins moving, the brakes should be tested. If braking is unsatisfactory, the engine should be shut down immediately. Return

13B-24
Then Answer is C
When excessive fuel and/or insufficient air is delivered to the combustor of a turbine engine, the exhaust temperature may rise above the engine's maximum limit, causing engine damage. This condition is known as a hot start. A hung start can lead to a hot start, but a hung start alone will not cause damage to the engine if corrective action is taken before a hot start condition occurs. Return

13B-25
The Answer is B
Use of standard hand signals is important for communication in high noise areas. Pointing one hand at the rotor and moving the other hand in a circle, indicates that it is safe to engage the rotor. Return

13B-26
The Answer is C
Anyone working around moving aircraft should know the standard FAA hand signals. Hands over the head and moving from shoulder width to criss-cross is the signal for an emergency stop in No.3 Return

13B-27
The Answer is C
Anyone working around moving aircraft should know the standard FAA hand signals. Hands over the head and moving from shoulder width to criss-cross is the signal for an emergency stop in No.3 Return

13B-28
The Answer is A
A 1/2 horsepower motor delivers 373 watts. With an 85% efficiency, the motor draws 373/.85 = 438.82 watts. By using the equation P=EI where P is watts, E is voltage, and I is the amperes, we can solve the equation by substituting the known values. 438.82 = 30 x 1 438.82/30 = 1 14.6 = 1 Return

13B-29
The Answer is A
When taxiing a tailwheel airplane in a strong crosswind, the wind pushing the vertical stabilizer and side of the fuselage causes the aircraft to pivot around the main wheels to align into the wind. Although a nosewheel airplane is also affected by the crosswinds during taxi, a tailwheel airplane is more prone to the weathervaning tendency. Return

13B-30
The Answer is B
Turbojet aircraft are hazardous from both the front and rear. At idle, the jet thrust can adversely affect persons or objects as far away as 100 feet from the engine outlet. At takeoff power, the jet blast can adversely affect objects up to 200 feet away. Return

13C

13C-1
The Answer is B
When turbine engines are operated on a mixture of jet fuel and aviation gasoline, the TEL (lead) in the gasoline forms deposits on the turbine blade vanes. Continuous use of mixed fuel typically causes a loss in engine efficiency. The tetraethyl lead in gasoline forms deposits on the compressor blades is incorrect because the exhaust gasses containing the tetraethyl lead do not pass through the compressor blades. Return

13C-2
The Answer is A
The higher the viscosity of a fuel, the greater its ability to hold contaminants in suspension. Jet fuel does have a high viscosity and, therefore, is more susceptible to contamination than aviation gasoline. Return

13C-3
The Answer is A
100LL aviation fuel is colored blue, jet A is colorless or may have a straw tint, and 80/87 is dyed red. Return

13C-4
The Answer is C
Octane and performance numbers designate the anti-knock value of a fuel. The higher the grade, the more compression the fuel can withstand without detonating. The octane scale goes to 100, which represents the anti-knock characteristics of pure iso-octane. For fuels with higher anti-knock characteristics, performance numbers are used. Return

13C-5
The Answer is B
Ethylene dibromide is added to aviation gasoline to scavenge lead oxide from the cylinders. The ethylene dibromide combines with the lead oxide in aviation fuels to form a lead bromide that passes out the exhaust. Return

13C-6
The Answer is C
Aviation gasoline (100LL) has a heat energy of 18,720 BUT/lb. Jet A fuel (Kerosene) has a heat energy of 18,439 BUT/lb. Since jet A weighs 6.7 lbs/gal and, therefore, has a heat energy of 112,320 BTU/gal. Therefore, kerosene has a higher heat energy per unit volume. Return

13C-7
The Answer is A
When any material, including fuel, changes from a liquid to a vapor state, it must absorb heat from its surroundings. Return

13C-8
The Answer is B
Detonation is also known as engine knock and is caused by an abrupt explosion of teh fuel/air mixture in the cylinder. This causes rapid rise in cylinder pressures, an increase in cylinder head temperature, and a decrease in power. Detonation can cause damage to the cylinder head and/or piston. Return

13C-9
The Answer is C
Volatility is a measure of the tendency of a liquid to vaporize under given conditions. If gasoline vaporizes to readily, vapor lock may occur. If it does not vaporize readily, hard starting may result. Return

13C-10
The Answer is C
The numbers and letters used to identify different types of jet fuel have no relation to the fuels rating of performance in the engine. Return

13C-11
The Answer is C
The primary differences between 100 and 100LL fuel are the color and lead content. 100 grade aviation fuel (old designation 100/130) is green in color and contains more tetraethyl lead than the newer 100LL which is dyed blue. Return

13C-12
The Answer is A
Aviation gasoline has a high heat value (approximately 18,720 BTUs per pound) and is highly volatile (5.5 to 7 PSI at 100F). Return

13C-13
The Answer is B
Tetreathyl lead (TEL) is added to gasoline to improve the performance (anti-knock rating). The addition of TEL allows the engine to develop more power without knocking. Return

13C-14
The Answer is C
A fuel that does not vaporize readily can cause hard starting; whereas, a fuel that vaporizes too readily can cause vapor lock. Return

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