Shop Safety
  • Electrical Safety- Most shop equipment opperating on 110/120 volts use a three-conductor cord.
      • The Black insulated wire carries the power
      • The White wire is the ground and is connected to the earth ground.
      • The green wire is the equipment ground and connects the housing of the equipment to the earth ground.
        • Do not use cords that are frayed or that have any of the wires exposed and be sure to replace any plugs that are cracked.
    • Electrical Fire Safety - The higher the resistance the greater the heat. It is possible for a plug on an extension cord to make such a poor connectino that its resistance causes enough heat to start a fire.
  • Radiation Hazards- always observe perscribed methods of handiling radioactives, which are often found on large transport aircraft.
  • Hazard Communication Program - The Occupational Saftey and Health Administration Comunication standard 29, as well as most states Right-To-Know laws, require maintenance shops to develop a formal safety program.
    • The Program's purpose is to make all personel aware of shop materials and are considered hazardous or potentially hazardous, and train them in the proper handiling and disposal of these materials.
    • Material Safety Data Sheets - OSHA Regulations stipulate that every employer has to have copies of relevant Material Safety Data Sheets readily available to all personnel at all times.
      • These sheets include:
        • Product Indentification
        • Principal Ingredients
        • Phsical data describing, appearance and odor
        • Fire and Explosion hazard potential
        • Reactivity data including stability and incompatibility with other substances
        • First Aid and health hazard data
        • Ventilation and personal protection
        • Storage and handiling procedures
        • Spill, Leak, and disposal procedures
    • Container labeling - A typical hazard label consists of four color-coded diamonds arranged into one large diamond
      • The label area colored red indicates a material's flammability hazard.
        • Zero indicates materials that are normally stable
        • Four indicates highly combustable materials
      • The blue area rates a substances health hazard
        • Zero indicates no significant risk
        • Four indicates life threatening or permanently damaging with single or repeated use.
      • The yellow area of the label rates a substance's reactivity.
        • Zero indicates materials that are normally stable, even under fire conditions
        • Four indicates readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition.
      • The white area of the label indicates a personal protection index.
        • A indicates minimum required equipment
        • K indicates the use of a full body suit, boots, and head mask with independant air supply.
  • Safety Around Compressed Gasses - Compressed air can power pneumatic drill motors, rivet guns, paint spray guns, and cleaning guns. In addition, compressed nitrogen is used to inflate tires and shock struts while compressed acetylene is used in weldin.
    • Dusting guns are usually equiped with a restrictor that reduces the pressure at their discharge to 30psi or less.
    • To prevent eye injury you should wear eye protection when using pnuematic tools
    • Wheel assemblies being worked on should be placed in a safety cage to minimize injurey if the wheel or tire fails during inflation.
    • All gass cylinders should be properly supported. A common method is securing them with a chain to a building.
    • Do not store Oxygen tanks near petrolium based products.
      • Do not use leak detectant compounds that contain oils or other petrolium products.
  • Safety Around Machine Tools
    • Dull cutting tools present a greater threat of injury than sharp tools, since a dull or improperly sharp-ened tool requires excessive force to do its job.
    • When using a drill press be sure the material being drilled is securely clamped to the press table before you begin drilling a hole.
      • Never leave a chuck key in a drill motor or a drill press.
    • To prevent eye injury always using eye protection when using power tools, or when you're entering an area where they are being used.
    • Never wear ties or other clothing that could get caught in a spinning tool.
  • Welding
    • Never conduct welding operations in a hanger closer to aircraft than 35 feet.
  • Fire Safety
    • Fire Protection
    • Classification of Fires
      • Class A Fires - Fires involving Wood, Cloth and Paper. ( Signified by a 'A' in a green triangle)
      • Class B Fires - Fires involving flammable liquids. ( Signified by a 'B' in a red square)
      • Class C Fires - Fires involving energized electrical Equipment. (Signified by a 'C' in a blue circle)
      • Class D Fires - Fires involving flammable metals, primarily Magnesium. (Signified by a 'D' in a brown star.)
    • Types of Fire Extinguishers
      • Water Extinguishers- Can be used for type 'A' fires, such as aircraft cabin fires.
      • Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers- Consist of a steel cylinder filled with the gas under pressure.
        • It's effective on both class B and C fires because it is electrically non-conducive.
        • Never use these extingquishers on class D fires.
      • Halogenated Hydrocarbon Extinguishers - Contains Chlorine, Flourine, Bromine, or Iodine.
        • They are most effective on B and C fires, but can also be used on A and D fires.
        • Not harmful to humans in moderate concentrations.
      • Dry Powder Extinguishers - Contain Bicarbonate of soda, Ammonium Phosphate, or Potassium Bicarbonate.
        • They are used on class B and C fires where liquids and live electrical currents are involved
        • They are also the most useful on class D fires.
    • Checking Fire Extinguishers
      • The three most common types of fire extinguishers used on aircraft are;
        • Carbon Dioxide
        • Nitrogen-pressurized dry powder
        • Halogenated hydrocarbon
      • All fire extinguishers should have seals over their operating handles to indicate if a unit has been discharged.
  • Jacking and Hoisting
    • Single wheel jacking
      • Never place the jack under the brake housing or in any location that is not specifically approved by the manufacturer
      • Do NOT lift both wheels off the floor at the same time when jacking from the landing gear struts
      • To keep the aircraft from moving while it is on the jack, the wheels that are not being jacked should be chocked.
    • Tripod jacking
      • The high capacity jacks have screw-type safety collars to prevent the jack from inadvertantly retracting.
        • Ensure that these collars are screwed down as the airplane is raised
      • Jacks that do not have screw-type collars have holes drilled in the shaft so lock pins can be iserted to guard against jack retraction
    • Hoisting - follow the manufactures guidelines and place spreader bars between the cables toprevent side loads on teh attachment points.

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